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The choice of materials for a vehicle is the first and most important factor in automotive manufacturing. There is a variety of materials that can be used in the automotive body and chassis, but the purpose of design is the main challenge here. The most important criteria that a material should meet are lightweight, economic effectiveness, safety, recyclability and life cycle considerations.
Noise, vibration and harshness is some of the important parameters for undisturbed riding comfort and a good amount of engineering is necessary for making a vehicle noise, vibration and harshness proof. A vehicle with very good ride quality is also a comfortable vehicle to ride in. Engine vibration, exhaust noise, external noise etc. are the reason for harshness inside a vehicle. Sometimes due to bad road or terrain or some other reason if the vehicle is not having good shock-absorber system then this may cause discomfort while riding these vehicles
Commercial vehicles are mainly used for public transport or goods transport. Commercial vehicle technology is required for advancement of modern day transportation systems. Bus, truck, vans etc. come under the commercial vehicle category. Commercial vehicles can have an overall effect on environmental pollution and road traffic control. With increasing usage of public-transport the road traffic will eventually go down and that will lead us to a cleaner environment.
On the bigger side automobile marketing is a major boost for automobile sales. Regional demand analysis and advertisement makes the difference in product success. In the countries with high per capita income, have a different need of automobile than the countries with low per capita income. Economical automobiles have a good future in third world countries.
Automobile designing is specializing in the ideas, layouts, and overall make-up of automobiles and automotive components. The best part of designing is to stand out of the crowd and that’s what a designer tries in most important three phases of an automobile design. In short, it’s the way of keeping marvelous engineering under the hood of a magnificent body. A lot of hard work goes through a lot of steps like manual designing, CAD, clay modelling, packaging, interior designing, trim, color and graphic designing etc.
Drivetrain is the link between the powerplant and the wheels of a vehicle. Transmission or gearbox is the major part of the drivetrain and it mainly regulates the power and torque to the driven wheels. The other parts are clutch, differential, and final drive shafts. Automatic transmission systems are now a day very popular in automobile industry as manual transmission are more prone to humane error.
In most of the automobile, engine is the main part of the powertrain which is the heart of the propulsion system. Throughout ages engines have evolved so much with newer technology. Several types of engines are there, separated by shape, size, fuel type, intake, cooling etc. Most commonly there are two types, one is gasoline or petrol engine, and another is diesel engine. Automobile engine is planned and designed according to the use of automobile in different sectors. Mechanical and Electrical engineers in association with automobile and industrial engineers are involved in the process of engine designing
Day by day with increasing acceleration of vehicles, the need for sharp braking systems also increased. A good braking system is what every vehicle deserves for the sake of humane safety and smooth mobility. From drum brakes to ceramic disk brakes are widely used for braking systems. With developing technology, the use of electronic sensor systems is increasing for smoother braking.
Autotronics or Automotive electronics are electronic systems used in automobiles, such as: engine management, ignition, sensors, carputers, alternator, telematics, entertainment systems and others. Now a day there are several vehicle security system which are mainly electronic system like biometric system, transmitter-receiver unlocking system, vehicle tracking systems etc. Mobile air-conditioning, climate control, electronically adjustable seats etc. come under passenger comfort systems. Long range radar, blind spot cameras, on board navigation system, parking sensor etc. are for driver assistance electronic system.
Vehicle safety systems are meant for both the vehicle and the passenger. Crashworthiness of a vehicle in crash test is mandatory for passenger and driver safety. Seat belts, airbags, dashboard cushioning, collision alarm etc. are some of the basic safety system on board a vehicle. Reverse backup sensors, backup camera, lane departure warning system, tire pressure monitoring system etc. are some of the driver assistance system for automobile safety.
Motor vehicle emissions contribute to air pollution and are a major ingredient in the creation of smog in some large cities. Exhaust gasses are one of the main reason behind global warming and in some cases due to incomplete burning of fuel, the exhaust gasses are toxic too. For a pollution, free transportation system emission norms are turning in favor of nature and engine technology is at its best to lower the amount of greenhouse gasses and toxic materials in exhaust gasses.
New power sources are emerging day by day for future mobility and transport system. Solar energy, wind energy etc. are becoming popular in this field. Biomass extracted fuels are under continuous research and development for replacing the conventional fuels. With different power sources, the running cost of automobile will go down.